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粉彩和珐琅彩的区别和它们的收藏价值

2018-08-09 10:31:37 来源:

1911年辛亥革命后,宫廷造办处制作的瓷胎画珐琅器随着清政府的灭亡,逐渐流入民间,古玩界第一次见到了如此精美的洋彩瓷器,为了与先前人们常见的景德镇洋彩瓷器进行区分,结合古文献中的“珐琅”一词,取其名为“珐琅彩”。此说一出,流传甚广,致使后人误以为珐琅彩和粉彩是两种不同性质的彩绘颜料,而非绘画技法。

In the office after the revolution in 1911, court created porcelain body made of painted enamel ware with the demise of the qing government, gradually into the folk, antique bound for the first time I saw such beautiful ocean color porcelain, in order to common people with previous jingdezhen to distinguish the color porcelain, based on the word "enamel" in the ancient literature, take its called "colored enamel. This theory spread so widely that posterity mistakenly believed that enamel and pastel were two different kinds of paints, rather than painting techniques.

英国罗斯柴尔德拍卖行解析粉彩和珐琅彩的区别和它们的收藏价值

清廷创烧的粉彩,始创于康熙,极盛于雍正,而在乾隆时期大放异彩。“珐琅”是外来物质的一种同音翻译,而珐琅彩瓷的得名,则与这种舶来材料有关,在珐琅彩传入中国之初,这种珐琅材料一般用于铜胎珐琅彩器。这种铜胎珐琅器的制作,是先在铜胎上掐丝,而后在掐丝的轮廓里填上这种进口的珐琅彩,所以这种珐琅器便得名铜胎珐琅器。以后用这种进口珐琅作为装饰的瓷器,也就按照这种习惯称之为珐琅彩瓷。

The qing court created a burning powder, starting in kangxi, yongzheng sheng, and in the qianlong period of extraordinary colors. "Enamel" is a homophone for foreign materials, and the name for the enamelware is related to this imported material, in the beginning of the introduction of enamelware into China, this kind of enamel material is generally used in the copper tire enamelware. This kind of copper tire enamel ware is made by first pinching silk on the copper tire, and then filling the contour of this kind of imported enamel color, so this kind of enamel ware is named copper tire enamel. In the future, this kind of imported enamel is used as decorative porcelain.

英国罗斯柴尔德拍卖行解析粉彩和珐琅彩的区别和它们的收藏价值

台北故宫博物院藏 瓷胎画珐琅绿竹长春碟

英国罗斯柴尔德拍卖行解析粉彩和珐琅彩的区别和它们的收藏价值

台北故宫博物院藏 瓷胎画珐琅绿竹长春碟及局部

古人称为“画珐琅”,现代人叫做“珐琅彩”。乍听上去,这两个名称似乎没有区别,但细细思量,它们却有着本质的不同。“画珐琅”强调的是“画”,是工艺,是技法。“珐琅彩”强调的是彩,是颜料,是材料。到底是材料为内容服务,颜料为作品服务,还是与之相反,让内容为材料服务,作品服从于颜料。关于这一点还需要讨论吗?当然是前者,这是天经地义的创作原则,而绝非相反。

The ancients called "painting enamel", and the moderns called "painting enamel". At first glance, the two names don't seem to differ, but on reflection, they are fundamentally different. "Painting enamel" emphasizes "painting", is the craft, is the technique. "Enamel" emphasizes the color, the pigment, the material. Whether the material serves the content, the pigment serves the work, or vice versa, the content serves the material, and the work obeys the pigment. Is that something to discuss? The former, of course, is the truest principle of creation, not the other way around.

英国罗斯柴尔德拍卖行解析粉彩和珐琅彩的区别和它们的收藏价值

北京故宫博物馆 清雍正 珐琅彩雉鸡牡丹纹碗

清代特别是康熙、雍正、乾隆三人都很爱好瓷器,珐琅彩瓷就是在康熙时期引进国外珐琅材料创制的,并一举成为极名贵的宫廷御用瓷器。当时在我国的欧洲传教士马国贤在写回国的信中,就记载了康熙皇帝热心于将国外的珐琅彩品种引进中国的情形。珐琅彩瓷的制作过程也与其他宫廷用瓷不同,是先在景德镇用高温烧成白瓷,然后送到北京清宫内务府造办处绘彩,再由造办处珐琅作在彩炉中烧成。

Qing dynasty especially kangxi, yongzheng, qianlong three love porcelain, enamel color porcelain is in the kangxi period imported foreign enamel materials to create, and at one stroke became extremely expensive palace imperial porcelain. Ma guoxian, a European missionary in China at that time, recorded in his letter that emperor kangxi was eager to introduce foreign varieties of enamel into China. The process of making enamelware is different from that of other royal porcelain. It is first burnt to white in jingdezhen and then sent to the official office of the qing palace in Beijing for painting.

英国罗斯柴尔德拍卖行解析粉彩和珐琅彩的区别和它们的收藏价值

南京博物馆 清乾隆 粉彩灯笼瓶

制作这种专供帝王和赏赐宫廷贵人赏玩的珐琅彩瓷极度费工,只能出现于盛世,乾隆以后就销声匿迹了。

康熙珐琅彩瓷全用进口彩料,尤其是其中一种玫瑰红或胭脂红色料,因含有微量的黄金而呈现出与众不同的娇艳效果。同时,中国传统彩瓷的彩料都用清水或胶水调和,而珐琅彩瓷则像西方油画一样,以油来调配彩料,使彩绘更具有立体感和层次感。珐琅彩瓷的特点是瓷质细润,彩料凝重,色泽鲜艳明丽,画工精致。

Kang xi enamel color porcelain USES entrance color makings entirely, especially one kind of rose is red or carmine red makings among them, because contain trace gold and present the charming yan result that gives extraordinary. In the meantime, the colorific material of Chinese traditional color porcelain is mixed with clear water or glue, and enamel color porcelain resembles western oil painting is same,

will mix colorific material with oil, make chromaticity has stereo feeling and layer feeling more. Enamel color porcelain is characterized by fine texture, dignified color, bright color, delicate painting. The production of this kind of enamelware specially for emperors and for the court's nobles was extremely costly and could only be seen in the prosperous times. After the reign of emperor qianlong, it disappeared.

英国罗斯柴尔德拍卖行解析粉彩和珐琅彩的区别和它们的收藏价值

大英博物馆 清雍正粉彩 鸟纹抱月瓶

尽管珐琅彩与粉彩瓷十分相似,但还是有把他们区分开来的方法。珐琅彩瓷有一个粉彩瓷所不具有的特点,那就是用珐琅彩瓷画面中的轮廓线都比较清楚,每个花朵、每片叶瓣都有明显的轮廓界限。轮廓界限明显的原因是珐琅彩料比粉彩料具有更大的流动性,由于轮廓界限清晰,珐琅彩瓷的画面也显得特别明朗、纯净,不像粉彩瓷的画面一样略带浑浊感和粉状感。珐琅彩瓷抚摸起来会有比较明显的高低起伏的触感;而粉彩瓷抚摸起来,则缺少这种感觉。粉彩填色之前需用玻璃白打底,也有一种说法是加入铅粉,让色彩看上去很粉嫩的。一般摸上去突出感强,尤其是雍正乾隆的粉彩,用料多,显得又粉又厚。

Although enamel and pastel are very similar, there are ways to distinguish them. Enamel porcelain has a characteristic that pastel porcelain does not have, that is, the contour line in the picture of enamel porcelain is clear, each flower, each leaf has a clear contour line. The reason for the obvious contour line is that the enamel color material has greater fluidity than the pastel color material. As the contour line is clear, the picture of enamel color porcelain also appears particularly clear and pure, which is not slightly cloudy and powdery like the picture of pastel porcelain.

The touch of enamel painted porcelain will have a more obvious feeling of high and low fluctuation; And powdery enamel stroke rises, lack this kind of feeling. Powdery chroma is filled before color needs to fill with glass white base, also have a kind of view is to add lead powder, let colour look very pink tender. In general, it has a strong feeling of prominence, especially the powder color of yongzheng qianlong.

英国罗斯柴尔德拍卖行解析粉彩和珐琅彩的区别和它们的收藏价值

大英博物馆 清雍正粉彩 天球瓶

英国罗斯柴尔德拍卖行解析粉彩和珐琅彩的区别和它们的收藏价值

大英博物馆 清雍正粉彩 天球瓶背面

粉彩中不含的化学成份珐琅彩中有,珐琅彩中含“砷”含“硼”。康熙前的瓷器中黄色为氧化铁,而珐琅彩中黄色的成分是氧化锑;珐琅彩还有用康熙前没见过的胶体金着色的金红。珐琅彩瓷的特点是瓷质细润,彩料凝重,色泽鲜艳靓丽,画工精致,而且胎壁及薄,有粉质感,立体感强。珐琅彩的胎体主要来自景德镇烧制的上等精细白瓷器,因为受铜胎画珐琅的影响,追求玻璃质感,因此胎体轻薄。粉彩胎体较厚重,胎质与珐琅彩相比较白和细密。

英国罗斯柴尔德拍卖行解析粉彩和珐琅彩的区别和它们的收藏价值

清 康熙粉彩花觚 口径:20.6cm 高:42.6cm

Chemical ingredients not included in the pastel are included in enamel, which contains "arsenic" and "boron". Before kangxi's porcelain, the yellow color was iron oxide, while the yellow in enamel color was antimony oxide. Enamel and gold red in colloid gold not seen before kangxi. Enamel porcelain is characterized by fine texture, dignified color, bright and beautiful color, delicate painting, and thin wall, powder texture, three-dimensional feeling. The body of enamel color mainly comes from the fine fine white porcelain fired in jingdezhen. The body is light because of the influence of copper tire painting enamel and the pursuit of glass texture. Pastel bodies are thicker, and the placenta is whiter and finer than enamel.

珐琅彩色非常丰富,在同一件瓷器上最多可达十几种,虽然粉彩色彩数量亦较多,但是表现在一件器物上远远不如珐琅彩丰富,呈色没有珐琅彩的金属质感,施彩比珐琅彩薄,表现的是柔美的感觉,呈色淡雅柔润、雅丽,其本身具有色彩浓淡的变化,色阶变化明显,具有传统国画的效果。如果用放大镜仔细观察,可以看到因为粉彩料未施满而露出的玻璃白,珐琅彩无此现象。从纹饰看,珐琅彩兼有西洋画法,立体感强,用手摸起来可以感觉到厚厚的釉料,粉彩则只是用薄薄的釉水,釉面不如珐琅彩浑厚,仅微微凸起。珐琅彩釉面有粗细不同的细小冰裂纹,即开片,这是区别珐琅彩与粉彩的重要方法,粉彩没有冰裂纹,且不反光。珐琅彩没有蛤蜊光晕散的现象,而粉彩有蛤蜊光晕散在周围。

英国罗斯柴尔德拍卖行解析粉彩和珐琅彩的区别和它们的收藏价值

清 雍正珐琅彩三系尊 口径:29cm 高:42cm

Enamel color is very rich, on the same pieces up to a dozen, although the pastel color is also more, but in a far less colored enamel abundant artifacts, metallic color no colored enamel, ShiCai thinner than colored enamel, is soft, soft color quietly elegant, elegant, itself has the change of the colour shade, color gradation change obviously, have the effect of traditional Chinese painting.

If you look closely with a magnifying glass, you can see that the white of the glass is exposed because the pastel is not fully applied. Look from grain act the role of, enamel color has western painting method concurrently, stereo feeling is strong, touch with the hand can feel thick glaze material, pastel just USES thin glaze water, glaze surface is inferior to enamel color is rich, only slightly protruding. Enamel enamels have small ice cracks of different thickness, that is, opening pieces, which is an important way to distinguish between enamels and pastels. Pastels have no ice cracks and do not reflect light. Enamel does not have the phenomenon of clam halo scattered, and pastel has clam halo scattered around.

小编从英国罗斯柴尔德拍卖行驻大陆办事处珠海亿缘文化了解到,我们最下面看到的这两件《清 康熙粉彩花觚》和《清 雍正珐琅彩三系尊》正在中国珠海英国罗斯柴尔德拍卖行驻大陆办事处参加展览,这正是我们零距离接触这两件清宫彩瓷的好时机。登录 qr06.cn/FqD7C0 或者 英国罗斯柴尔德拍卖官网了解更多资讯。

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